Note: This post contains affiliate links. See my disclosure about affiliate links here.

Following up from my previous blog post about Using Python’s Bitcoin libraries in Elixir, I initially mentioned that I was having trouble figuring out a way to get Elixir talking to C++ code, specifically to use the Libbitcoin toolkit. After looking through a bunch of libraries that purport to solve this problem, some using Native Implemented Functions (NIFs) under the hood, others using Ports, I finally got the results I was after using an Elixir library called Cure (which uses Ports).

This blog post will focus on getting Elixir to talk to C++ code that will interface with Libbitcoin, within the context of the Creating a Base58Check-encoded bitcoin address from a private key section in Chapter 4 of Mastering Bitcoin: Programming the Open Blockchain, using the code in Example 4-3. We’ll create a new project and create a solution in two main steps:

  • Confirm that we can simply compile and run the C++ code as-is (read: as a shell command) within Elixir using the Porcelain library, collect the output, and print it to screen: creating essentially an Elixir wrapper around running the C++ code.
  • Introduce Cure to actually get Elixir and C++ to be able to handle message passing between each other, which will require significant changes to the C++ code.

Disclaimer: I am not a C/C++ programmer and am likely Doing It Wrong when I’m on that side of the fence, so please don’t consider any code there to be in any way idiomatic or the way it Should Be Done.

Install Libbitcoin

Before starting with Elixir, let’s install the Libbitcoin toolkit. For Mac OS, you can simply install it using Homebrew:

brew install libbitcoin

For other operating systems, please refer to Libbitcoin’s installation instructions.

New Project

Create a new mix project:

mix new libbitcoin
cd libbitcoin

Install and configure Porcelain

Open up the project in your favourite text editor, and add Porcelain as a dependency to your mix.exs file:

defmodule Libbitcoin.Mixfile do
  # ...
  defp deps do
    [
      # Work with external processes
      {:porcelain, "~> 2.0"}
    ]
  end
end

Install Porcelain:

mix deps.get

Then, configure the driver to use for Porcelain by adding the following line in config/config.exs:

config :porcelain, driver: Porcelain.Driver.Basic

Porcelain can also be used with the Goon driver, which is not something that seems to be needed for this project, so we just tell Porcelain to use its basic driver.

Confirm C++ code can be compiled and run

Next, create a c_src/ directory in the project, and copy the code from the book’s addr.cpp file into c_src/addr.cpp, and create a priv/ directory, which is where we will output compiled C++ executable files.

Having C source code in a c_src/ directory is Erlang convention for the location of C source code, but for artefacts that are needed in production (ie those compiled C++ executables), the Elixir convention is to have them in a priv/ folder, so that’s how we’ll roll.

According to the book, we should be able to compile the code using g++ in the following way:

g++ -o priv/addr c_src/addr.cpp $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libbitcoin)

If running this command as-is works for you, then that’s great, but on my computer, that runs Mac OS High Sierra, I got a screen full of errors. In order to fix this, I had to add the -std= flag, to determine the standard language for compilation, which in my case needed to be c++11: The 2011 ISO C++ standard plus amendments (see Options Controlling C Dialect for more information). So, the compilation command needed to be changed to:

g++ -std=c++11 -o priv/addr c_src/addr.cpp $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libbitcoin)

Running the generated priv/addr executable outputs the following result:

./priv/addr
Public key: 0202a406624211f2abbdc68da3df929f938c3399dd79fac1b51b0e4ad1d26a47aa
Address: 1PRTTaJesdNovgne6Ehcdu1fpEdX7913CK

Create Elixir wrapper around C++ file

Now that we’ve confirmed we can run the C++ file, let’s write the Elixir wrapper that will compile the file and run the executable. Create a lib/libbitcoin directory in your project and then create an addr.ex file inside of it:

defmodule Libbitcoin.Addr do
  @moduledoc """
  Example 4-3. Creating a Base58Check-encoded bitcoin address from a
  private key.
  """

  @cpp_compile """
  g++ -std=c++11 $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libbitcoin) \
  c_src/addr.cpp -o priv/addr
  """
  @cpp_executable "priv/addr"

  def run do
    Porcelain.shell(@cpp_compile)

    @cpp_executable
    |> Porcelain.shell()
    |> Map.fetch!(:out)
    |> IO.write()
  end
end

Then, open up an iex console and run the module:

iex -S mix
iex(1)> Libbitcoin.Addr.run()
Public key: 0202a406624211f2abbdc68da3df929f938c3399dd79fac1b51b0e4ad1d26a47aa
Address: 1PRTTaJesdNovgne6Ehcdu1fpEdX7913CK
:ok

It works! We’ve now been able to get Elixir to output the result of running the C++ executable, but Elixir isn’t really talking directly (sending and receiving messages) to the code yet, so let’s work on that next.

Install and configure Cure

Add Cure as a dependency to your mix.exs file, and then run mix deps.get:

defp deps do
  [
    # Interface C-code with Erlang/Elixir using Ports
    {:cure, "~> 0.4.0"},
    # Work with external processes
    {:porcelain, "~> 2.0"}
  ]
end

Then, get Cure to generate the necessary base files to communicate between C++ and Elixir:

mix cure.bootstrap

This command will add the following files to the c_src directory:

c_src
├── Makefile
├── main.c
└── main.h
  • Makefile: a template to automatically build a C++ executable including Cure’s libraries. We’ll leave this for now, but get back to it later on.
  • main.c: Cure’s base C file to communicate between C/C++ and Elixir.
  • main.h: The header file for main.c

Hello C++

Before going straight into talking to Libbitcoin, let’s do a quick spike to confirm that we are able to pass messages back and forth from Elixir to C++.

We are going to need the original addr.cpp code for reference, so let’s first store a copy of the original:

mv c_src/addr.cpp c_src/addr.cpp.orig

Next, we’ll move over the Cure-generated files to the be the new addr files:

mv c_src/main.h c_src/addr.h
mv c_src/main.c c_src/addr.cpp

Yes, it’s okay for the .c file to become a .cpp file for our purposes.

Next, open up each of the files and change them so that they look like the following:

c_src/addr.h

#ifndef ADDR_H
#define ADDR_H
#include <elixir_comm.h>

// TODO put your own functions/includes here.

#endif

c_src/addr.cpp

#include <string>
#include "addr.h"

int main(void) {
  int bytes_read;
  byte buffer[MAX_BUFFER_SIZE];

  while ((bytes_read = read_msg(buffer)) > 0) {
    std::string param = (char*) &buffer;
    std::string greeting = "Hello " + param + " from C++";

    memcpy(buffer, greeting.data(), greeting.length());
    send_msg(buffer, greeting.size());
  }

  return 0;
}

The code here reads in the message (an array of bytes) that gets brought in from Elixir via the read_msg function that Cure provides, stores it in a buffer, copies it into a C++ param string, interpolates it into a greeting message, copies the greeting back into the buffer, and finally sends it back to Elixir via the send_msg function, also provided by Cure. More information about the I/O functions provided by Cure can be found here.

Next, change the Elixir code to use Cure to send messages to C++:

defmodule Libbitcoin.Addr do
  @moduledoc """
  Example 4-3. Creating a Base58Check-encoded bitcoin address from a
  private key.
  """

  alias Cure.Server, as: Cure

  @cpp_compile """
  g++ -std=c++11 -I./deps/cure/c_src -L./deps/cure/c_src -O3 \
  $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libbitcoin) \
  -x c++ ./deps/cure/c_src/elixir_comm.c \
  c_src/addr.cpp -o priv/addr
  """
  @cpp_executable "priv/addr"

  def run do
    Porcelain.shell(@cpp_compile)

    with {:ok, pid} <- Cure.start_link(@cpp_executable),
         greeting <- hello_world(pid) do
      IO.puts(greeting)
      :ok = Cure.stop(pid)
    end
  end

  defp hello_world(pid) do
    Cure.send_data(pid, "Elixir", :once)
    receive do
      {:cure_data, response} ->
        response
    end
  end
end

Some things to note about this code:

  • The compile command has changed quite significantly, and getting it to work was mostly a case of going through the c_src/Makefile that Cure generated as part of its bootstrapping process, and reconstructing the compilation command to include all the necessary Cure headers and libraries.
  • -x c++ ./deps/cure/c_src/elixir_comm.c is telling the compiler to treat Cure’s generated elixir_comm.c file as a C++ file (otherwise the g++ compiler will output warnings).
  • Cure’s default way of opening a port to a C++ program is by the use of the Cure.load() API, which “starts a supervisor which supervises all of its children (a child in this case is a GenServer that communicates with a C/C++ program). That seemed like overkill for this situation, so I simply used Cure.Server.start_link() instead to just start a GenServer.
  • Cure.send_data(pid, "Elixir", :once) will only allow one response to be received back from the C++ code, which is all we need for this case. However, if multiple responses from C++ need to be processed by Elixir, then the :permanent mode flag could be used instead. More examples of the different kinds of modes can be found on Cure’s README.

Let’s now open up an iex console again and see if we have a conversation going:

iex -S mix
iex(1)> Libbitcoin.Addr.run()
Hello Elixir from C++
:ok

Excellent! Now that we have Elixir and C++ talking to each other, it’s time to actually get Elixir talking with Libbitcoin.

Working with Libbitcoin

Looking at the code in c_src/addr.cpp.orig (the original code from the book), it would seem that it performs two main actions:

  • Generate a public key from a private key
  • Create a bitcoin address from a public key

So, let’s separate those two concerns into their own functions in our C++ code, porting over the code mostly as-is:

c_src/addr.h

#ifndef ADDR_H
#define ADDR_H
#include "elixir_comm.h"

std::string generate_public_key(std::string priv_key);
std::string create_bitcoin_address(std::string pub_key);

#endif

c_src/addr.cpp

#include <string>
#include "addr.h"

int main(void) {
 // ...
}

std::string generate_public_key(std::string priv_key) {
  bc::ec_secret decoded;
  bc::decode_base16(decoded, priv_key);

  bc::wallet::ec_private secret(decoded, bc::wallet::ec_private::mainnet_p2kh);

  // Get public key.
  bc::wallet::ec_public public_key(secret);
  return public_key.encoded();
}

std::string create_bitcoin_address(std::string pub_key) {
  bc::wallet::ec_public public_key = bc::wallet::ec_public::ec_public(pub_key);
  // Compute hash of public key for P2PKH address.
  bc::data_chunk public_key_data;
  public_key.to_data(public_key_data);
  const auto hash = bc::bitcoin_short_hash(public_key_data);

  bc::data_chunk unencoded_address;
  // Reserve 25 bytes
  //   [ version:1  ]
  //   [ hash:20    ]
  //   [ checksum:4 ]
  unencoded_address.reserve(25);
  // Version byte, 0 is normal BTC address (P2PKH).
  unencoded_address.push_back(0);
  // Hash data
  bc::extend_data(unencoded_address, hash);
  // Checksum is computed by hashing data, and adding 4 bytes from hash.
  bc::append_checksum(unencoded_address);
  // Finally we must encode the result in Bitcoin's base58 encoding.
  assert(unencoded_address.size() == 25);
  const std::string address = bc::encode_base58(unencoded_address);
  return address;
}

So, that’s all well and good (probably), but how can we get Elixir to tell C++ to call these functions? It would be nice if there was some kind of Export-style interface where we could pass the C++ function name that we want called as a string from Elixir. Alas, there aren’t any (that I know of), so we’ll have to get a bit more creative.

While searching Github for examples that used Cure, I came across the elixir-interop-examples repo, which provided me with some inspiration on how to tackle this problem: get Elixir to send an integer as the first byte of the message to C++. This integer will represent the function to be called, and C++ can switch on it to determine what action needs to be performed. Elixir binaries make it straightforward to be able to tinker with the innards of a sequence of bytes, so that’s how we can proceed by updating the C++ code as follows:

c_src/addr.h

// ...

// Helper functions
// REF: https://github.com/asbaker/elixir-interop-examples/blob/master/serial_ports/c_src/serial.c
void process_command(byte* buffer, int bytes_read);
// REF: https://github.com/asbaker/elixir-interop-examples/blob/master/serial_ports/c_src/erl_comm.h
void get_string_arg(byte* buffer, char* string, int bytes_read);

#endif

c_src/addr.cpp

#include <bitcoin/bitcoin.hpp>
#include "addr.h"

const int GENERATE_PUBLIC_KEY = 1;
const int CREATE_BITCOIN_ADDRESS = 2;

int main(void) {
  int bytes_read;
  byte buffer[MAX_BUFFER_SIZE];

  while ((bytes_read = read_msg(buffer)) > 0) {
    process_command(buffer, bytes_read);
  }

  return 0;
}

// Process the command dependent on the integer value given in the message
// sent from Elixir
void process_command(byte* buffer, int bytes_read) {
  int function = buffer[0];
  char arg[1024];
  get_string_arg(buffer, arg, bytes_read);
  std::string retval;

  if (bytes_read > 0) {
    switch (function) {
      case GENERATE_PUBLIC_KEY:
        retval = generate_public_key(arg);
        break;
      case CREATE_BITCOIN_ADDRESS:
        retval = create_bitcoin_address(arg);
        break;
      default:
        fprintf(stderr, "not a valid function %i\n", function);
        exit(1);
    }
    memcpy(buffer, retval.data(), retval.length());
    send_msg(buffer, retval.size());
  } else {
    fprintf(stderr, "no command given");
    exit(1);
  }
}

void get_string_arg(byte* buffer, char* arg, int bytes_read) {
  buffer[bytes_read] = '\0';
  strcpy(arg, (char*) &buffer[1]);
}

std::string generate_public_key(std::string priv_key) {
  // ...
}

std::string create_bitcoin_address(std::string pub_key) {
  // ...
}

The main function now immediately delegates off to process_command, which extracts the function indicator and arg argument from the bytes passed to it by Elixir, calls the appropriate function, and sends its return value (retval) back to Elixir.

On the Elixir side, the code looks like the following:

defmodule Libbitcoin.Addr do
  @moduledoc """
  Example 4-3. Creating a Base58Check-encoded bitcoin address from a
  private key.
  """

  alias Cure.Server, as: Cure

  @cpp_compile """
  g++ -std=c++11 -I./deps/cure/c_src -L./deps/cure/c_src -O3 \
  $(pkg-config --cflags --libs libbitcoin) \
  -x c++ ./deps/cure/c_src/elixir_comm.c \
  c_src/addr.cpp -o priv/addr
  """
  @cpp_executable "priv/addr"
  # Private secret key string as base16
  @private_key """
  038109007313a5807b2eccc082c8c3fbb988a973cacf1a7df9ce725c31b14776\
  """

  # Integers representing C++ methods
  @generate_public_key 1
  @create_bitcoin_address 2

  def run do
    Porcelain.shell(@cpp_compile)

    with {:ok, pid} <- Cure.start_link(@cpp_executable),
         public_key <- generate_public_key(pid),
         bitcoin_address <- create_bitcoin_address(pid, public_key) do
      IO.puts("Public key: #{inspect(public_key)}")
      IO.puts("Address: #{inspect(bitcoin_address)}")
      :ok = Cure.stop(pid)
    end
  end

  defp generate_public_key(pid) do
    cure_data(pid, <<@generate_public_key, @private_key>>)
  end

  defp create_bitcoin_address(pid, public_key) do
    cure_data(pid, <<@create_bitcoin_address, public_key :: binary>>)
  end

  defp cure_data(pid, data) do
    Cure.send_data(pid, data, :once)
    receive do
      {:cure_data, response} ->
        response
    end
  end
end
  • Both generate_public_key and create_bitcoin_address send separate requests out to the C++ code via Cure, in the same way that you might call some other external service. Each of the binary messages has an integer as its first byte, and a string taking up the rest of the message.
  • The @generate_public_key 1 and @create_bitcoin_address 2 module attributes mirror the similarly named constants in the C++ code, so they are coupled quite tightly out of necessity.
  • We’re now keeping the private key on the Elixir side and passing in to C++ as a parameter, rather than have its definition be on the C++ side.

Before seeing if this actually works, for clarity’s sake, here are the full C++ code samples:

c_src/addr.h

#ifndef ADDR_H
#define ADDR_H
#include "elixir_comm.h"

std::string generate_public_key(std::string priv_key);
std::string create_bitcoin_address(std::string pub_key);

// Helper functions
// REF: https://github.com/asbaker/elixir-interop-examples/blob/master/serial_ports/c_src/serial.c
void process_command(byte* buffer, int bytes_read);
// REF: https://github.com/asbaker/elixir-interop-examples/blob/master/serial_ports/c_src/erl_comm.h
void get_string_arg(byte* buffer, char* string, int bytes_read);

#endif

c_src/addr.cpp

#include <bitcoin/bitcoin.hpp>
#include "addr.h"

const int GENERATE_PUBLIC_KEY = 1;
const int CREATE_BITCOIN_ADDRESS = 2;

int main(void) {
  int bytes_read;
  byte buffer[MAX_BUFFER_SIZE];

  while ((bytes_read = read_msg(buffer)) > 0) {
    process_command(buffer, bytes_read);
  }

  return 0;
}

// Process the command dependent on the integer value given in the message
// sent from Elixir
void process_command(byte* buffer, int bytes_read) {
  int function = buffer[0];
  char arg[1024];
  get_string_arg(buffer, arg, bytes_read);
  std::string retval;

  if (bytes_read > 0) {
    switch (function) {
      case GENERATE_PUBLIC_KEY:
        retval = generate_public_key(arg);
        break;
      case CREATE_BITCOIN_ADDRESS:
        retval = create_bitcoin_address(arg);
        break;
      default:
        fprintf(stderr, "not a valid function %i\n", function);
        exit(1);
    }
    memcpy(buffer, retval.data(), retval.length());
    send_msg(buffer, retval.size());
  } else {
    fprintf(stderr, "no command given");
    exit(1);
  }
}

void get_string_arg(byte* buffer, char* string, int bytes_read) {
  buffer[bytes_read] = '\0';
  strcpy(string, (char*) &buffer[1]);
}

std::string generate_public_key(std::string priv_key) {
  bc::ec_secret decoded;
  bc::decode_base16(decoded, priv_key);

  bc::wallet::ec_private secret(decoded, bc::wallet::ec_private::mainnet_p2kh);

  // Get public key.
  bc::wallet::ec_public public_key(secret);
  return public_key.encoded();
}

std::string create_bitcoin_address(std::string pub_key) {
  // Create Bitcoin address.
  // Normally you can use:
  //    bc::wallet::payment_address payaddr =
  //        public_key.to_payment_address(
  //            bc::wallet::ec_public::mainnet_p2kh);
  //  const std::string address = payaddr.encoded();

  bc::wallet::ec_public public_key = bc::wallet::ec_public::ec_public(pub_key);
  // Compute hash of public key for P2PKH address.
  bc::data_chunk public_key_data;
  public_key.to_data(public_key_data);
  const auto hash = bc::bitcoin_short_hash(public_key_data);

  bc::data_chunk unencoded_address;
  // Reserve 25 bytes
  //   [ version:1  ]
  //   [ hash:20    ]
  //   [ checksum:4 ]
  unencoded_address.reserve(25);
  // Version byte, 0 is normal BTC address (P2PKH).
  unencoded_address.push_back(0);
  // Hash data
  bc::extend_data(unencoded_address, hash);
  // Checksum is computed by hashing data, and adding 4 bytes from hash.
  bc::append_checksum(unencoded_address);
  // Finally we must encode the result in Bitcoin's base58 encoding.
  assert(unencoded_address.size() == 25);
  const std::string address = bc::encode_base58(unencoded_address);
  return address;
}

Now, the moment of truth. Open up an iex console and let’s see if we can talk to Libbitcoin:

iex -S mix
iex(1)> Libbitcoin.Addr.run()
Public key: "0202a406624211f2abbdc68da3df929f938c3399dd79fac1b51b0e4ad1d26a47aa"
Address: "1PRTTaJesdNovgne6Ehcdu1fpEdX7913CK"
:ok

Success! This may not be the most elegant way to talk to C++ code, but, for this use case, it works!

Improve Build Automation with a Makefile

Now that we have everything working as expected, we can make the build process more maintainable for the future if we take the compile command that we currently have in the Elixir @cpp_compile module attribute, and put it back in C-land inside the Makefile. So, building on the Makefile that Cure bootstrap provided for us, add some more code so it looks like the following:

c_src/Makefile

CC = g++ -std=c++11
APP_DIR = $(shell dirname $(shell pwd))
CURE_DEPS_DIR = $(APP_DIR)/deps/cure/c_src
CURE_DEPS = -I$(CURE_DEPS_DIR) -L$(CURE_DEPS_DIR)
ELIXIR_COMM_C = -x c++ $(CURE_DEPS_DIR)/elixir_comm.c
LIBBITCOIN_DEPS = $(shell pkg-config --cflags --libs libbitcoin)
C_FLAGS = $(CURE_DEPS) $(ELIXIR_COMM_C) $(LIBBITCOIN_DEPS) -O3
PRIV_DIR = $(APP_DIR)/priv
C_SRC_DIR = $(APP_DIR)/c_src
EXECUTABLES = addr

all: $(EXECUTABLES)
# REF: https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/Static-Usage.html#Static-Usage
# $< - prerequisite file, [email protected] - executable file
$(EXECUTABLES): %: %.cpp
	$(CC) $(C_FLAGS) $(C_SRC_DIR)/$< -o $(PRIV_DIR)/[email protected]

A few notes about this Makefile that I learned when figuring out its correct incantations:

  • When you want to call a shell function inside a Makefile that would normally look something like $(ls) on the command line, since the $() syntax is used for Makefile internal variable referencing, the syntax then becomes $(shell ls) (see The shell function).
  • Set up of the EXECUTABLES statement, and the code below it, means that when make all is run, for each of the filenames in that EXECUTABLES list (ie this list could be added to: EXECUTABLES = addr foo bar), the $(CC) $(C_FLAGS) $(C_SRC_DIR)/$< -o $(PRIV_DIR)/[email protected] command gets run for each of them (for example $< gets subbed out for addr.cpp and [email protected] gets subbed out for addr). More information about this code structure for a Makefile can be found in Makefile’s Static Usage documentation.

Now, you can get Cure to compile all your C++ executables for you via mix:

mix compile.cure

If you want to have this done automatically when you compile your Elixir code, you can add the Cure compiler to the list of your project’s compilers in mix.exs:

defmodule Libbitcoin.Mixfile do
  use Mix.Project

  def project do
    [
      # ...
      compilers: Mix.compilers ++ [:cure, :"cure.deps"]
    ]
  end

  # ...
end

Note, though, that if you do this, every time a process calls mix compile, the C++ executables will be re-compiled. So, it may end up slowing down, say, the running of a set of tasks in a mix test.watch process, as each task will end up re-compiling the C++ code (potentially unnecessarily) before it runs. In this case, it may be best to just add a compile.cure task to run before any of the others. For other Cure-based compilation options see its README.

Since we’ve now moved all the responsibility for C compilation into the Makefile, we can cull some code from addr.ex to create the final file:

defmodule Libbitcoin.Addr do
  @moduledoc """
  Example 4-3. Creating a Base58Check-encoded bitcoin address from a
  private key.
  """

  alias Cure.Server, as: Cure

  @cpp_executable "priv/addr"
  # Private secret key string as base16
  @private_key """
  038109007313a5807b2eccc082c8c3fbb988a973cacf1a7df9ce725c31b14776\
  """

  # Integers representing C++ methods
  @generate_public_key 1
  @create_bitcoin_address 2

  def run do
    with {:ok, pid} <- Cure.start_link(@cpp_executable),
         public_key <- generate_public_key(pid),
         bitcoin_address <- create_bitcoin_address(pid, public_key) do
      IO.puts("Public key: #{inspect(public_key)}")
      IO.puts("Address: #{inspect(bitcoin_address)}")
      :ok = Cure.stop(pid)
    end
  end

  defp generate_public_key(pid) do
    cure_data(pid, <<@generate_public_key, @private_key>>)
  end

  defp create_bitcoin_address(pid, public_key) do
    cure_data(pid, <<@create_bitcoin_address, public_key :: binary>>)
  end

  defp cure_data(pid, data) do
    Cure.send_data(pid, data, :once)
    receive do
      {:cure_data, response} ->
        response
    end
  end
end

Elixir now needs to know nothing about C++ source code compilation: only that it needs to target a @cpp_executable file when it wants to talk with C++. Porcelain also now has nothing specifically to do any more, so it can be safely removed from the project mix.exs file, and its configuration removed from config.exs.

Final Thoughts

This blog post was borne out of a lot of trial and error and frustration, mostly due to me not being able to C++ my way out of a paper bag without a Stack Overflow safety net. Regardless, I hope it at least assists someone who may be attempting to try something similar, or is reading Mastering Bitcoin as well. I have no doubt that I’m doing it wrong when it comes to C++, so if you have any improvement suggestions, please leave a comment. If you want to keep tabs on my gradual port over of Mastering Bitcoin code over to Elixir, check out my Mastering Bitcoin repo.


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